Tax Information for Students: Filing, Benefits, and Special Regulations
Higher education is a significant investment, and students should understand the implications it has on their taxes. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide on tax information for students, including when to file, potential tax benefits, and specific rules for foreign students.
Filing a Tax Return as a Student
Students may need to file a tax return depending on their gross income and whether their parents claim them as dependents. Scholarships and grants are usually tax-free, but there might be scenarios where these have to be included in taxable income. Students can use the IRS’s Interactive Tax Assistant to figure out whether their scholarship, fellowship, or education grant is considered income.
A key point is that students can often get a refund even if they aren’t required to file a tax return. If a student has held a part-time or full-time job and their Form W-2 shows federal and state withholding, they may qualify for a refund.
Tax Benefits for Higher Education
If students have student loans or are paying for their own education, they may be eligible to claim education deductions and credits on their tax return. These can include loan interest deductions, qualified tuition programs (such as 529 plans), and Coverdell Education Savings Accounts.
However, students who are dependents on their parents’ tax returns usually aren’t eligible to claim education credits. In these cases, the student’s parents may be eligible to claim the education deductions and credits.
Tax Information for Foreign Students
Foreign individuals temporarily present in the United States as students, trainees, scholars, teachers, researchers, exchange visitors, and cultural exchange visitors face specific rules regarding the taxation of their income.
For nonresident aliens, including foreign students or scholars, there is no minimum dollar amount of income that triggers a filing requirement. But they need to file a tax return if they have a taxable scholarship or fellowship grant, income partially or totally exempt from tax under the terms of a tax treaty, or any other income taxable under the Internal Revenue Code.
Filing is not required for nonresident alien students who have income only from foreign sources, certain types of interest income, a tax-free scholarship or fellowship grant, or other nontaxable income under the Internal Revenue Code. However, income that’s not taxable due to an income tax treaty must be reported on a U.S. income tax return even if no tax is due.
Taxpayer Identification Numbers (TINs) for Foreign Students
Generally, foreign students may apply for either a Social Security number (SSN) or an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) for tax-related documents. Students in F-1, J-1, M-1, and Q-1 nonimmigrant status are typically eligible to apply for an SSN if they are employed in the U.S. Those who are not eligible for an SSN, or do not meet the Social Security Administration’s evidence requirements for an SSN, may apply for an ITIN from the IRS if they have a valid tax reason for needing one.
In conclusion, understanding tax requirements and benefits is crucial for students navigating their financial landscape. Whether a domestic or international student, keeping abreast of these regulations can result in significant tax savings and a clearer understanding of your financial obligations.